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V1/V1+s; do/does + V1


We use the Present Simple to describe actions that take place on a regular basis (always, everyday, sometimes, never, often...), or to describe general truths:


















        1. My name is Tom.



























        1. It rains in the winter.

















In positive sentences, we use the base form of the verb and add s' for he/she/it:


















        1. We live here.



























        1. She lives here.

















For negative and question sentences we use don't or doesn't:


















        1. He doesn't live here anymore.



























        1. Do you still live here?



























        1. Where do they live?

















If we are asking a "subject question" (Who or what does something?), we use the base form of the verb +s' (without do or does):


















        1. Who lives here?



























        1. What happens in the morning?

















If the sentence doesn't have a regular verb, we use the "Be" verb (am/are/is):


















        1. I am sick.



























        1. You aren't healthy.



























        1. Is it time to go now?



























        1. Where is the train station?

















Choose the correct form of the verb to complete the following sentences:






I __________ your problem.

We ___________ think she will win the race.
Who ___________ the dishes in your family?
Where ________ you think he went?

Present Progressive/Continuous


 am/are/is + V1 +ing

We use the Present Progressive to describe actions that are happening now (at the moment). To form the Present Progressive, we use am/are/is and add ing to the verb:

We are playing chess now.
He isn't behaving like he should.
Why am I feeling this way?
We can also use the Present Progressive to describe actions that we plan on doing in the near future:

I'm leaving soon.
He's taking the first flight out of JFK airport tomorrow morning.
The Present Progressive can also be used to describe actions that are taking place during a specific period of time:

I'm preparing for my final exams this week.
This month we're reorganizing the whole store.
Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the verb:

I _______________ the problem as we speak.
Where is he _________?
The policemen __________ for the suspect right now.

Past Simple


V2; did + V1


We use the Past Simple to describe actions that happened at a specific time in the past (yesterday, last year, last week, a month ago, the 5th of January 1999).


For positive sentences, we use the second form of the verb (V2), which is usually formed by adding ed to the verb:





  1. I played with him yesterday.



  2. We discovered a beautiful cave in the forest.



  3. He guided us in the right direction.




There are irregular verbs that don't get ed:




  1. We took the kids to school this morning.



  2. They bought a new house last week.



  3. I saw the movie last night.



For negative and question sentences, we use did and the base form of the verb:




  1. I didn't know you were bringing your whole family with you.



  2. Did you see that movie?



  3. When did he sell his boat?



For "subject questions", we use the verb in the V2 form (without did):




  1. Who cooked this delicious meal?



  2. What made that noise?



Fill in the following sentences with the correct form of the verb:


I __________ to the park yesterday.

Who ___________ the last painting?
Where ___________ you last night?
We ___________ remember to turn off the lights when we left.

Past Progressive


was/were + V1 + ing


We use the Past Progressive to describe a continuous action that happened at a certain time in the past:





  1. What were you doing last night?



  2. I was working on my thesis.



If you want to describe two "long" actions that took place at the same time in the past (simultaneously), use the Past Progressive for both actions:




  1. I was reading a book, while he was playing on the computer.



  2. We were eating supper, while they were walking in the park.  



If you want to describe a "short" action that "interrupted" a "long" action in the past, use Past Simple for the short action and Past Progressive for the long action:




  1. We were running in the park, when suddenly it started raining.



  2. I was reading a book, when the phone rang.



Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the verb:


I was watching TV, when he ____________ at the door.


She was cooking dinner, while the children ______________ their homework.
I __________, when I suddenly saw an elephant crossing the street.

Future Simple


will + V1 {won't=will not}


We use the Future Simple to describe an action that's going to happen in the future. The Future Simple is most commonly used when we decide to do something on the spot, or promise to do something:




  1. It will rain tomorrow.



  2. I think we'll take the day off on Tuesday.



  3. I will do the dishes tonight.



Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the verb:


I __________ you soon.

This mess ___________ long.

Present Perfect



have/has +V3


We use the Present Perfect to describe actions that took place in the past and influence the present.


These distinctions will help you decide when to use Past Simple and when to use Present Perfect:





  • In the Past Simple the focus is on the action. In the Present Perfect the focus is on the outcome of the action.

  • In the Past Simple we can always add a specific time. We never add a specific time to the Present Perfect.



 




  1. I have already been there.

  2. I heven't seen that movie yet.



 



Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the verb:


The actors have already ____________ the rehearsal.


He ________ never been there before.
We _________ there last week.
She _____________ very busy lately.
We __________the museum twice since it was opened.

Present Perfect Progressive



have/has + been + V1+ ing


 


We use the Present Perfect Progressive to describe actions that started in the past and continued up till the present:


 



  1. I have been cooking all day.

  2. I have been waiting to meet you all my life.


 


Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the verb:


 


How long have you ___________ here?


I __________ for my glasses all day long.

Past Perfect



had + V3


We use the Past Perfect to describe an action that took place in the past and influenced another action that took place in the past, after the first action. Both actions took place in the past. The first action gets Past Perfect and the second one gets Past Simple:



  1. I went to bed after I had finished my homework. {First I finished my homework and then I went to bed.}

  2. I had taken a taxi by the time the bus arrived.


Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the verb:


I hadn't met her before he ____________ us.


We had to return home early, because I _________ to shut off the gas.

Past Perfect Progressive



had + been + V1 +ing  


We use the Past Perfect Progressive to describe a continuous action that started in the past and continued until another action happened in the past. Both actions took place in the past. The first action (the "long" action) gets Past Perfect Progressive and the second one gets Past Simple:



  1. I had been waiting for 2 hours to see the dentist, before he finally called my name.

  2. We had been traveling for hours, so we stopped for a break.


Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the verb:


My sister __________ to go on a diet, because she had been putting on weight for quite some time.


This issue has to be dealt with now, we've __________it for too long.

Future Past



would + V1


We use the Future Past to describe an action that was mentioned in the past, as something that would happen in the future (relative to the time it was mentioned).



  1. He told me that he would help me.

  2. She promised she would take me with her.


Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the verb:


I knew that I ____________ to take the test again.


How could I have known that this ________ ?


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